188体育官网

Liu Hua, Vice Minister of the Ministry of ecology and environment, an international leader in the safety level of nuclear power in China
[2020-05-29]

In this year's NPC and CPPCC sessions, topics such as national security and pollution prevention have become hot topics for delegates and members. Nuclear and 188体育官网 safety is an important part of national security and an important part of ecological environmental protection.

China is one of the fastest developing countries in the world, and the nuclear power plant is the number one in the world. With the continuous deepening of the use of nuclear energy, new technologies continue to emerge. How to make safe use and develop nuclear energy has become one of the most concerned topics in the society. In the coming 14th Five-Year, nuclear energy utilization will speed up, and nuclear safety work becomes particularly important.

A series of questions about nuclear safety need to be known to the public: how safe is the nuclear power in China? How to develop nuclear safety under the influence of the new crown pneumonia epidemic? What is the plan for the completion of the key tasks and the 14th Five-Year plan for nuclear safety in 13th Five-Year?

The daily economic news (hereinafter referred to as "NBD") interviewed the CPPCC National Committee member, Vice Minister of ecology and environment and Liu Hua, director of the National Nuclear Safety Bureau.  

Vice Minister Liu Hua (front row left two) photo source: Ministry of ecology and environment for map

The epidemic has little impact on the operation and construction of nuclear facilities.

NBD: what are the effects of the epidemic on nuclear safety? What specific measures have we taken?

Liu Hua: In the early stage of the new crown pneumonia outbreak, there were also a small number of staff who failed to return to work in time and postponed the renewal of individual construction sites at the early stage of the nuclear industry. However, due to the strong overall planning of the nuclear industry, the enterprises adopted strict and effective epidemic prevention measures, and the operation and construction of the facilities were less affected, and the safety and quality were effectively controlled.

In the face of the severe test of the epidemic, the Ministry of ecology and environment (National Nuclear Safety Bureau) conscientiously implemented General Secretary Xi Jinping's important directive spirit of co ordinate the new crown pneumonia epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, fully implemented the decision making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the state Council, implemented the "six stable" and "six guarantees" requirements, adhered to the "war epidemic", "nuclear protection" and "two guarantees", and on the one hand strengthened Supervision team's own epidemic prevention and control, on the other hand, help and guide enterprises to strengthen epidemic prevention and control, ensure safety in production, and contribute to the prevention and control of the epidemic.

First, we must adhere to the combination of online and offline to ensure that the level of nuclear safety supervision is not reduced.

The National Nuclear Safety Agency has implemented on-site supervision system for key nuclear facilities and important nuclear equipment manufacturers.

During the epidemic period, China's nuclear power plant continued to operate steadily, and nuclear safety inspectors kept on site supervision for 2-3 months in a row, ensuring that factory supervision was continuously maintained.

At the same time, we will use the Internet technology to support on-site supervisor on-site supervision, and carry out special inspections of nuclear facilities construction, operation and maintenance on line and line, so as to ensure that supervision level and supervision depth will not be reduced.

We should speed up the application of information technology in nuclear power plant construction, Yun Wei and 188体育官网 protection management, effectively operate a unified national nuclear power plant experience feedback information platform, and conduct comprehensive trend analysis on operation events of nuclear power plants, aiming at preventing and controlling safety risks.

Two, we must adhere to the combination of management and service, and promote enterprises to resume work and resume production.

We should optimize the permit review process during the epidemic period, speed up the process of nuclear safety equipment, personnel qualification and radioisotope import and export approval, and turn the threshold into a lever. Under the premise of ensuring safety, we should press the "fast forward key" for the resumption of production and production of enterprises.

Three, we must adhere to the combination of supervision and assistance, and unimpede the supply chain industry chain.

We should comprehensively repair and repair nuclear power construction and equipment manufacturing supply chain, market chain and supporting chain, so as to achieve "blocking point", make up "breakpoints" and eliminate "card points" for enterprises, ensure the quality and safety of nuclear power construction, and play a basic role in ensuring the safety of power grids.

The four is to combine pressure reduction and assistance to contribute to the prevention and control of epidemic situation.

Actively coordinating the production, sale and transportation units of radioactive sources, and quickly transported a number of urgent radioactive sources to Hubei, and solved the urgent need for the shortage of medical radioactive sources in Wuhan.

Exemption procedures for CT, mobile DR and other radiographic diagnostic equipment to be urgently used in epidemic prevention and control, postponing the time limit for submission of annual reports of medical institutions, supporting 188体育官网 enterprises to carry out 188体育官网 sterilization of medical protective equipment, encouraging nuclear industry to donate protective materials and participating in nucleic acid detection, and help to win the epidemic prevention and control.  

Vice Minister Liu Hua (middle) photo source: Ministry of ecology and environment for map

China's nuclear power generating units have maintained good safety performance.

NBD: in the past few years, some nuclear safety incidents in the world have attracted worldwide attention. What is the level of nuclear power safety in China? What is the probability of a radioactive source accident?

Liu Hua: Our country has always taken nuclear safeguards as an important national responsibility, integrating into the whole process of nuclear energy development and utilization, and always developing nuclear undertakings on the premise of safety. We have established a system of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety regulations and standards that is consistent with the international situation, and is in line with the national conditions, and implemented supervision and management according to the most stringent standards.

At the same time, China's nuclear power industry started late, and absorbed the international mature experience in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants.

Up to now, China has run 47 nuclear power plants, and its safety performance has been maintained well. So far, no international nuclear and 188体育官网 incident classification table (INES) level 2 or above has occurred.

The operation of nuclear power plants meets the requirements of China's current nuclear safety regulations and International Atomic Energy Agency safety standards. It has a complete ability to deal with design benchmark accidents, and also has some serious accident prevention and mitigation capabilities. The safety of running nuclear power plants is guaranteed.

The new nuclear power generating units such as AP1000, EPR and "Hualong No. 1" have taken full account of the prevention and mitigation of serious accidents from the design stage, and the design safety level has been further improved.

4 AP1000 and 2 EPR generating units have been successfully debugged in China and entered commercial operation. China has become the first country in the world to master the commissioning and operation technology of the new generation of nuclear power plants.

Data released by the world nuclear power operator Association (WANO) show that in the past five years, the 80% operation index of China's nuclear power plant is above the world median level, and the 70% index is above the international advanced level.

In 2019, a total of 23 nuclear power generating units were WANO full index, and the overall safety index increased year by year. It should be said that China's nuclear power safety level is the world's leading.

The 15 units under construction in China have been continuously improved and optimized by absorbing more than 30 years of operation experience and safety research results at home and abroad. Compared with similar international units, they have a higher design safety level.

Through the quality control and effective management of the whole chain of site selection, design, manufacture, construction, installation and commissioning, quality incidents are properly handled, effectively ensuring the quality of the built units.

In terms of 188体育官网 safety, there are 146 thousand radioactive sources and 198 thousand sets of 188体育官网 installations in our country.

Under the joint efforts of the central and provincial governments at all levels, the 188体育官网 safety supervision of radioisotopes and radiological devices has been continuously deepened, and the inherent safety facilities have been improved. The annual incidence of radioactive sources accidents has dropped from 6.2 per 10000 in 1990s to 1 per thousand in recent years, and the level of 188体育官网 safety has continued to rise.  

In March 2nd, the "Hualong No. 1" global first batch thermal performance test was basically completed. The operator checked the main pump state in the main control room. Photo source: Xinhua News Agency

The process of radioactive waste management needs to be accelerated.

NBD: what are the challenges faced by China's nuclear safety supervision? What are the measures we are adopting to meet the challenge?

Liu Hua: For a long time, China's nuclear and radiological safety has maintained good safety performance. Nuclear facilities have not experienced operational incidents of grade 2 or above of international nuclear and 188体育官网 incidents. The annual incidence of radioactive sources remains low and the quality of 188体育官网 environment is good. At the same time, we are also aware of the fact that nuclear safety risks always exist.

One is the international level.

The global nuclear security situation is complex and changeable, and the strategic game is aggravating. The international nuclear safety order has been affected to a certain extent, and the uncertain and unstable factors that affect China's nuclear safety have increased.

The two is the industry level.

Facing the downward pressure of the economy, we must always adhere to the development concept of "safety first".

The implementation of enterprise nuclear safety responsibility needs to be strengthened continuously, and the problem of illegal operation and fraud has not been completely eliminated.

The process of decommissioning nuclear facilities and radioactive waste management needs to be speeded up.

The safety and environmental risks of shutting down uranium mining and metallurgy facilities can not be ignored.

The three is the social dimension.

The public is highly concerned about nuclear safety. The form and mechanism of public communication for nuclear safety need to be perfected. The specific work of public communication must be implemented and worked for a long time.

The four is the regulatory level.

With the commissioning of new units and the application of new technologies, new materials and new equipment, the allocation of regulatory resources should be further strengthened.

To this end, we must adhere to the bottom line thinking, strengthen the sense of hardship, and fight for the initiative of turning danger into opportunity.

First, we must improve our standing.

From the perspective of overall national security, we should study and promote nuclear safety work, strengthen early warning and monitoring of risks, carry out consultation and consultation and joint prevention and control, enhance the ability to prevent risks, and create a good atmosphere for nuclear safety.

Two, we must strengthen the rule of law.

We should promote the modernization of the governance system, speed up the revision and revision of the supporting laws and standards of the nuclear safety law, enhance the capability of supervision and law enforcement, strengthen the continuous improvement of the nuclear and 188体育官网 safety management system, and continue to carry out the implementation, tracking, evaluation and continuous improvement of the management system and related procedures.

Three, we must strictly supervise.

Adhere to the problem oriented, strengthen risk management and control, organize the implementation of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety hidden danger investigation three years plan of action.

Taking operational safety as the core, we should strengthen the safety supervision of nuclear facilities and promote the effective operation of the experience feedback system.

We will continue to promote the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the control of radioactive waste, and check the safety and environmental risks of shutting down uranium mining and metallurgy facilities.

We should optimize the licensing process, strengthen supervision afterwards, and consolidate the responsibilities of operating units, general contractors, Jianan units and manufacturing units.

Four, we need comprehensive protection.

We will continue to promote the construction of nuclear safety culture and strengthen publicity and evaluation. We should strengthen information disclosure of nuclear safety, public participation and popular science propaganda.

We should deepen international cooperation in nuclear safety and promote global nuclear safety governance. Carry forward the spirit of nuclear safety and forge a nuclear safety force.  

Hualong No. 1 world first reactor Fuqing nuclear power plant No. 5 Scene (January 8th photo) source: Xinhua News Agency

There are 1597 monitoring points for national control 188体育官网 environmental quality.

NBD: this year is the year of ending 13th Five-Year. What is the completion of the key tasks in the nuclear safety "13th Five-Year" plan?

Liu Hua: In 2018, the Ministry of ecology and environment, together with the development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of finance, the Energy Bureau and the national defense science and Technology Bureau, carried out a mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the "13th Five-Year" plan for the prevention and control of nuclear safety and radioactive pollution and the prospect of 2025.

At present, the final assessment of the plan has been launched, and a comprehensive and systematic assessment of the implementation of the plan will be conducted. Since the implementation of the plan, various regions and departments have strictly implemented the tasks of division of labor, effectively promoted the level of nuclear safety and radioactive pollution prevention and control, and maintained good nuclear and radiological safety achievements.

First, the nuclear and 188体育官网 safety system is more perfect.

Promulgated and implemented the nuclear safety law, and continuously improved the nuclear and 188体育官网 safety regulations and standards.

We should deepen institutional reform and promote the transformation of nuclear safety regulatory agencies from phased supervision to sub regional regulation. We should strengthen the construction of nuclear power facilities safety assurance system and further play the role of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety supervision stations.

We should establish and improve China's nuclear and 188体育官网 safety management system and enhance the standardization and standardization of supervision.

We should promote the construction of a central public security mechanism for nuclear safety supervision, local leading, enterprise participation and public participation, publish the white paper on China's nuclear safety, strengthen the cultivation of nuclear safety culture, deepen international cooperation in nuclear safety, and create a good atmosphere for the whole industry, the whole society and the whole world to jointly safeguard nuclear safety.

Two, the capability of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety has been significantly improved.

The national R & D base for nuclear and 188体育官网 safety supervision and operation has been put into operation, and a national unified feedback platform for nuclear power plants and research reactors has been built. Nuclear and 188体育官网 safety assessment, supervision and law enforcement capabilities have been comprehensively upgraded.

The three level 188体育官网 environmental monitoring system of the state, provincial and municipal levels has been set up, with 1597 monitoring points for national 188体育官网 environment and 46 monitoring systems around key nuclear facilities.

To implement the safety responsibility of the nuclear power group, 3 nuclear power enterprises' nuclear accident rapid support bases were set up, 300 national emergency rescue teams and 25 professional rescue teams were set up.

We need to cultivate nuclear safety professionals and set up 72 universities for Nuclear Engineering in China, and recruit 3000 students every year.

A number of advanced and reliable nuclear safety technologies have been applied in engineering, and significant achievements have been made in independent research and development and localization of nuclear safety critical equipment and materials.

Three, nuclear and 188体育官网 safety risks are effectively prevented.

Many times carried out comprehensive safety inspections covering the national nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the short-term and medium-term targets for safety improvement were fully completed. The long-term measures continued to push forward and the safety level of nuclear facilities was further enhanced.

We should promote the investigation of radioactive levels at the nuclear base, properly handle radioactive wastes, and make positive progress in the early retirement of nuclear facilities and uranium mining and metallurgy facilities.

Nuclear facilities and radioactive waste are upgraded orderly.

We should strengthen the 188体育官网 source safety action plan, establish the national nuclear technology utilization management database, realize the radioactive source and 188体育官网 device 100% into the license management, and the waste radioactive source 100% safely collect and store.  

Photo taken by Fuqing nuclear power unit 5 in April 27, 2019: Xinhua News Agency

Nuclear and 188体育官网 safety hazards investigation will be conducted.

In January 1st NBD:2018, the nuclear safety law of the People's Republic of China in the field of nuclear safety was formally implemented. How did it happen in two years?

Liu Hua: In January 1, 2018, the nuclear safety law was formally implemented. To ensure the implementation of the nuclear safety law, the Ministry of ecology and environment (National Nuclear Safety Bureau) has launched a series of activities.

First, carry out propaganda activities.

Compiling a compilation of nuclear safety law interpretation materials and nuclear and 188体育官网 safety regulations, publishing a series of publicity and catalogues, holding a training course for rule of law, and actively utilizing the platform of "4. 15" national day of national security education and 65 environmental day, and so on, promoting the whole industry to carry out nuclear safety law activities in different fields and levels.

The two is to improve the supporting rules and regulations.

Promulgated the regulations on qualification management of welding personnel for civil nuclear safety equipment, regulations for the qualification of NDT personnel for civil nuclear safety equipment, regulations on safety licensing procedures for nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and other departmental rules and regulations, and formulated and revised a series of guidelines and documents to ensure that legal requirements are effective on landing.

Three is to enhance the ability to perform duties according to law.

In line with the legal responsibilities of the nuclear safety law, combined with the new situation and new tasks of nuclear safety supervision, we should explore a risk oriented regulatory mode and promote the transformation of the focus of supervision to the protection of nuclear power safety and the quality of nuclear power construction. We will integrate network security into the nuclear safety management system, enhance the capability of independent checking, optimize the personnel qualification management system, and fully implement the regulatory responsibilities.

Four, we must adhere to strict supervision according to law.

The guidelines for the administrative law enforcement of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety have been formulated, and a set of procedures for the safety supervision and inspection of nuclear facilities has been formulated and issued. Activities such as special inspections of imported nuclear safety equipment have been carried out to maintain "zero tolerance" and high pressure on fraud and illegal operations.

Through carrying out these activities, the policy of "safety first" is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, the main responsibility of nuclear safety is further implemented, the nuclear safety regulations and standards system is more sound, the level of rule of law for nuclear safety supervision is enhanced, and the modernization of nuclear safety governance system and governance capacity has achieved remarkable results.

NBD: in April this year, the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group 2020 Long Bay Leadership Forum proposed that the Ministry of ecology and environment (National Nuclear Safety Agency) will conduct three years of nuclear and 188体育官网 safety hazards investigation. What is the background and key points of the investigation?

Liu Hua: In order to carry out the series of important instructions and instructions of the Central Committee of the CPC Central Committee on Comrade Xi Jinping's recent work on safety production and implement the requirements of the relevant meeting, the Ministry of ecology and environment held a meeting of the Party branch (enlarged) in April this year, studying and deploying further investigation and emergency response to nuclear and 188体育官网 safety accidents, and decided to carry out nuclear installations, uranium mining, metallurgy and nuclear technology utilization units. Full risk investigation.

The nuclear and 188体育官网 safety hazard investigation will be conducted on the national civil nuclear facilities operation unit, uranium mining and metallurgy, nuclear technology utilization unit and nuclear safety equipment certification unit according to the regulations, strictly implementing safety hazards investigation.

On the one hand, adhere to the daily nuclear and 188体育官网 safety supervision.

The relevant units will regularly analyze and judge the safety status and the risk points of the units being inspected, combined with the daily supervision and inspection results, and thoroughly investigate all kinds of hidden dangers and weak links.

On the other hand, we must adhere to the responsibility of nuclear power and 188体育官网 safety of compaction operation units.

Combining operation units' self-examination and supervision department on-site verification, we urge the operating units to strengthen risk prevention awareness, rule of law awareness, standardize internal safety management, inspect countermeasures, strengthen safety management and long-term mechanism for risk prevention, and make solid preparations for emergency preparedness and drills so as to effectively prevent nuclear and 188体育官网 accidents.  

Two units of Dayawan nuclear power station in Shenzhen, Guangdong (August 8, 2019 photo): photo source: Xinhua photo reporter Li He

Nuclear safety regulatory focus, mode and so on will change.  

NBD: we know that the "14th Five-Year plan" for nuclear safety is being worked out. What are the general principles and directions? What changes will be made in China's nuclear safety regulation in the next five years compared with the "13th Five-Year" period?

Liu Hua: At present, the "14th Five-Year" plan for nuclear safety has been launched, and the principles and directions are mainly in the following aspects:

In the work goal, we must realize "Four Transformations".

That is to say, we must change from the traditional nuclear facilities safety to the broad national nuclear safety.

The focus of supervision should be shifted from the construction permission examination to the guarantee of operation safety and the construction quality.

In the mode of supervision, we should change the regulatory mode based on certainty theory to the regulatory mode combining certainty theory with risk guidance.

From the point of view of supervision, we should change the technology from the main point of relying on manpower to the full use of the tools of supervision and evaluation and the information technology.

In the way of thinking, we must strengthen internal and external co-ordination.

From the inside, we must seize the key, focus on breakthroughs, and accelerate the modernization of the nuclear safety regulatory system and regulatory capacity.

First, strengthen the construction of nuclear safety management system as the key, standardize internal management and promote the modernization of regulatory system.

Two, we should focus on strengthening the capacity building of the nuclear safety center, enhance the level of supervision and technology support, and promote the modernization of regulatory capability.

From the outside point of view, we must grasp the starting point and make great efforts to co-ordinate the efforts of the government, industry and society to promote the modernization of the nuclear safety governance system and governance capability.

First, the nuclear safety work coordination mechanism is the starting point to consolidate the efforts of the government.

Two, we should take nuclear safety law and nuclear safety plan as the starting point to consolidate the industry.

Three, we should unite nuclear safety culture and public communication as the starting point to unite social forces.

In the layout of work, eight supervisory systems should be constructed, that is, policy and law system, safety supervision system, supervision and law enforcement system, technical support system, monitoring and emergency system, information system, international cooperation system, and comprehensive guarantee system.

The nuclear safety industry has entered a new era of high quality and high level development. We must adhere to the solid foundation, enhance the advantages, make up the short board, and strengthen the weak term. We must continue to uphold and improve the nuclear safety system, focus on improving the ability to implement the system, and promote the modernization of the nuclear safety governance system and governance capacity.

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